Friday, November 11, 2011


…bridging the gap between merit and demerit!

Mastermind is a principle that trains a disadvantage individual to use the potential of others to compensate for his or her weakness in a system of a perfect spirit of harmony with person(s) whose corporation is needed for the attainment of a definite major purpose.

The mastermind session is tailored to offer you practical truth that will enable you to tap into the strength of others and intelligently maximize it for your success. No one is an island of knowledge; you need the knowledge of others to excel where you are deficient in such knowledge. If you attempt to succeed with what you know, you may be limited in life where your experience and education cannot give you the success you so desire.

Certainly, with the application of the mastermind principle, you will receive the full benefits of education, experience and technical skills of those whose cooperation is fundamentally needed for the attainment of your major purpose in life. By using the strength of others to compensate for your weakness, you gain the benefits of their education, experience and beliefs to aid you in the attainment of success and true satisfaction as those who are blessed with such strength.

The world in the past and present perspective is populated with great achievers, and all of them have come to enviable position by employing the principle of mastermind. Take to heart every teaching in the mastermind session and your struggle for excellence will receive intelligent speed for accomplishment.

If you find this section helpful, kindly send in your comments and feedback by making use of the comments box. We also welcome any suggestion on how to make this section more resourceful.

For personal consultation contact me. You can also take advantage of our courses and helpful resources to improve on your self, career and or profession.You can also visit our E-store for more product information that will be of immense assistance in your study of communication.

For more information, please visit our home.

The top beckon on you!
 Precious O.U. Ogholaja


             ..a blast of wisdom for successful living!

Wisdom is the ability to know how to use knowledge and experience to solve practical problems and create a foundation for excellence. Wisdom is the principal thing, therefore, in all you acquire; make wisdom your number one assets.

Wisdom drill is designed to introduce you to a lifestyle of wisdom so that you can be abreast with the required information to enable you displace ignorance and foolishness in everyday life. This section will empower you to make the right decision in your daily life.

Click on the following links to experience the power of wisdom.

1.     Quotes about wisdom.
2.     Wise.
3.     Wisdom.
4.     Wisdom quotes.
5.     The wisdom life.
6.     Inspirational Wisdom

Where and what you are today is a function of the degree of wisdom that is resident in you, and where and what you shall become tomorrow will be certainly determined by the degree of foolishness that has been displaced in your life by the instructions of wisdom.

If you find this section helpful, kindly send in your comments and feedback by making use of the comments box. We also welcome any suggestion on how to make this section more resourceful.

For personal consultation contact me. You can also take advantage of our courses and helpful resources to improve on your self, career and or profession.You can also visit our E-store for more product information that will be of immense assistance in your study of communication.

For more information, please visit our home.

Be wise!
Precious O.U. Ogholaja


…Seeing the world around you in a completely new light!

Geology is the study of the Earth, its processes, its materials, its history, and the effect it has on humans and life in general.  In this broad study of geology, we shall study in in-depth: Rocks, crystals, mountains, earthquakes, volcanoes, rivers, glaciers, landslides, floods, and many other subjects. It is a science that is still young enough to have exciting, unanswered questions, but mature enough to make use of all the sophistication and rigor that one can bring to bear!

Geology is unique because it is a highly field-oriented science.  Geologists perform a wide range of significant services for our civilization:
·        They search for valuable deposits of natural resources such as iron, coal, and oil.
·        They determine the stability of building sites.
·        They find abundant supplies of clean water.
·        They also try to minimize the threat to communities at risk from geologic hazards.

The work of a geologist is usually outdoors, sometimes in deserts or sparsely populated mountain ranges.  It is imperative to note that some of the most geologically interesting places in the world are also the most scenic.  Students of geology can expect to find themselves working in locations that they have often wanted to travel to, as well as many that they had not known of but were grateful to have visited still.
Geology is a fundamental visual science.  Many geological problems are much like solving a puzzle.  Therefore, you will be required to present a possible explanation of the events that occurred to produce the scenery surrounding them.  If you have ever wondered how a certain hill came into existence in a certain place, or why a cliff or canyon should have such a vivid display of color to it, or why a large outcrop of rock is exposed in a particular fashion, a background in geology can help you to return to those features and figure out the answers.  Once you have had an introduction to geology, you will see the world around you in a completely new light.

Geologic phenomena affect our daily lives as well as the future of our planet. Fundamental knowledge in the Earth and planetary sciences has direct bearing on matters of urgent interest to the public, to policy makers, and to other scientists. The threats of a major earthquake in California, a volcanic eruption in the northwestern U.S., or an asteroid impact are ever present. The sudden reality of global warming is global fundamental issue that can be properly attended to with geological knowledge. A naturally fluctuating climate is being modified by human activities in ways that we do not understand with consequences that we cannot envisage.

The geology section of this site shall provide the following information for every student of geology, and also all who are interested in the study of geology.

1.     Environmental geosciences

·        The earth and planet.
·        The effects of natural events.
·        Human and the earth systems.
·        Correcting environmental trends.
·        Global climate system.
·        Pollution.
·        Environmental project.
·        Environmental project.
·        Environmental engineering geology.
·        Hydrogeology.
·        Global change.
·        Marine geosciences.
·        Natural resources.

2.     Exploration geology

·        Applied geology.
·        Exploration.
·        Evacuation.
·        Extraction.
·        Geological process.
·        Modern geological exploration techniques and technology.
·        Safety.
·        Geophysical survey.
·        Geochemical survey.
·        Underground mapping and exploration drilling.
·        Drilling.
·        Advanced geochemistry.
·        Sedimentology.
·        Engineering geology.
·        Offshore geology.
·        Pollution.
·        Exploration geology.

3.     Geological research.
4.     School of geology.
5.     Geological technology.

If you find this session helpful, kindly send in your comments and feedback by making use of the comments box. We also welcome any suggestion on how to make this session more resourceful.

For personal consultation contact me. You can also take advantage of our courses and helpful resources to improve on your self, career and or profession.You can also visit our E-store for more product information that will be of immense assistance in your study of communication.

For more information, please visit our home.

Wishing you the best in the study of geology!
 Precious O.U. Ogholaja


……understanding biology!

Biology is a natural science that is concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy. The term biology is derived from the Greek word βίος, and the suffix –λογία. Bios means “life” and the suffix, logia means “the study of” according to historical documentation it appears in German (as biologie) as early as 1791, and may be a back-formation from the older word amphibiology (meaning the study of amphibians) by deletion of the initial amphi.

It is a common belief that many of the earliest records of biology come from the bas-reliefs left behind by the Assyrians and Babylonians. For example, Papyrus and artifacts found in tombs and pyramids indicate that the Egyptians possessed considerable, albeit archaic by today's standards, medical knowledge. There is also growing evidence from China and India as early as 2500 BC that there were general practices of therapeutic healing, silkworm use to produce silk, biological control of crops, and agricultural cultivation.

The study of biology shifted dramatically to a belief that every event has a cause and that a particular cause produces a particular effect. This came with the arrival of Greek civilization. These philosophers of science believed that there is the existence of a natural law governing the universe; a law that can be comprehended by man through his use of observation and deduction. Although they established the science of biology, their greatest contribution to science was the idea of rational thought.

Going through the rapid evolution of biological advancements, recent discoveries concerning hereditary mechanisms and genetic engineering have raised ethical issues beyond our previous imagination, and have potential implications that could affect the very existence of life itself. With over 7 billion humans on Earth today, and growing explosively, we are rapidly stretching the limits of our planet to sustain life as we know it. Global warming, depleted food sources, desertification, weather pattern changes, shrinking ozone layers, and rising ocean levels are warning signs of these stresses.

Do we sit down, fold our hands and do nothing to ensure our safety and survival? Of course not! This is where we all have the responsibilities of getting involved. Whether you enter the doors of biological science or sit on the outside, it is imperative that you become informed of the advancements in biology. This will enable you to make intelligent decision at the appropriate time and place.

Over the years biologists have engaged themselves fundamental biological research, and much of the basic biological research done in recent years has dovetailed in new knowledge, including the isolation and identification of genes. In view of the above, biological scientists will be needed to effectively disseminate this knowledge to the larger society, and also to take this knowledge to the next level, which is the understanding of how certain genes function within an entire organism, so that medical treatments can be developed to treat various diseases.

Even pharmaceutical and other firms that are not solely engaged in biotechnology do use biotechnology techniques extensively, spurring increase in employment for biological scientists. Biological scientists are using their knowledge to help farmers increase crop yields by pinpointing genes that can help crops such as wheat grow worldwide in areas that currently are hostile to the crop.

Continued work on chronic diseases should also lead to growing demand for biological scientists. In addition, efforts to discover new and improved ways to clean up and preserve the environment will continue to add to job growth. More biological scientists will be needed to determine the environmental impact of industry and government actions and to prevent or correct environmental problems such as the negative effects of pesticide use. Some biological scientists will find opportunities in environmental regulatory agencies, while others will use their expertise to advise lawmakers on legislation to save environmentally sensitive areas.

New industrial applications of biotechnology, such as new methods for making ethanol for transportation fuel, also will spur demand for biological scientists. There will be a high demand for biological scientists specializing in botany, zoology, and marine biology, but opportunities will be limited because of the small size of these fields. Marine biology, despite its attractiveness as a career, is a very small specialty within biological science.

Today is an exciting time to pursue a career in biology. Scientists are better equipped today than ever before to solve biological questions that were once thought unsolvable. Biology is quest- an ever evolving science; once one question is answered, it leads to another.

Here is a list of careers for which a biology background is required or at least very useful:
  1. Biotechnology
  2. Forensic Science
  3. Physiotherapy
  4. Pharmacy
  5. Optometry
  6. Forestry
  7. Agricultural science
  8. Environmental Consulting
  9. Medicine
  10.  Dentistry
  11.  Chiropractic Medicine
  12.  Teaching
  13.  Research

This section will provide an in-depth tutelage   on some of the important topics covered in general and advance biology course. Biology can be a difficult course, simply because a lot of material is covered in the course. It is important to note that the degree of difficulty between college biology and high school biology will differ based on the emphasis of detail.

In order to do well, students are required to understand the concepts and to memorize important details. The best way to accomplish this is to review on a daily basis the knowledge of biology gained in the biology section of this site, and also your school biology note for at least 30. Also, try to answer biology problems. Often times, practice problems are very similar to the questions on the exam.

Biology is a fascinating subject. Learning about life on Earth is fun. Biology is the study of life, what life needs to survive, what makes life possible, how life evolves and changes, and how life forms interact with one another.

To get indebt knowledge of biology, we are going to concentrate our studies on the following topics. Click on the links below to begin your learning.

1.     What is Biology?
2.     Branches of biology.
3.     Biology and Biologists.
4.     Homeostasis
5.     Osmosis
6.     Diffusion
7.     pH.
8.   Anatomical science.
9.     Chemistry of Living Things

·        What is chemistry of living things?
·        Elements, Atoms & Molecules
·        Water & Life
·        Chemical compounds and macromolecules
·        Acids, Bases & Buffers
·        Biochemistry.

a)    What is biochemistry?
b)    Medical biochemistry.
c)     Biochemistry and molecular biology.
d)    Molecular biology.
e)     Biochemistry and chemistry.
f)      Biochemistry and physiology.

10.                The Cell and Life Process

§  What is a cell?
§  Cell Theory & Organization
§  Size of cells
§  Types of cells
§  Plant cells
§  Unique properties of plant cells
§  Parts of the cell
§  Purification of hemoglobin
§  Cell Cycle and Mitosis

a)    Cell cycle
b)    Growth
c)     Division 
d)    Regulation
e)     What is Mitosis?

§  Cell division & cancer
§  Cell Energetics
§  Cellular energy currency
§  Enzymes as catalysts
§  Catabolic Pathways
§  Glycolysis
§  Cellular Respiration
§  Cellular Structure and Function

11.               Biological compounds

a)    Macromolecular structure and bonding
b)    Abiotic origin of biological molecules

12.               Enzyme activity

a)    receptor binding
b)    regulation

13.               Major metabolic pathways and regulation

a)    Respiration
b)    Fermentation
c)     Photosynthesis
d)    Synthesis and degradation of macromolecules
e)     Hormonal control and intracellular messengers

14.               Membrane dynamics and cell surfaces

a)    Transport
b)    Endocytosis
c)     Exocytosis
d)    Electrical potentials and neurotransmitters
e)     Mechanisms of cell recognition
f)      cell junctions and plasmodesmata
g)    Cell wall and extracellular matrix

15.                Organelles

a)    Structure
b)    Function
c)     Targeting

16.                Cytoskeleton, motility, and shape

a)    Actin-based systems
b)    Microtubule-based systems
c)     Intermediate filaments
d)    Bacterial flagella and movement

17.                Life processes

18.                Genomes & Sexual and Asexual Reproduction

·        Eukaryotic genomes
·        Bacterial genomes
·        Sexual life cycle & Meiosis
·        Cell biology and genome.
·        Genomes
·        Sexual Reproduction
·        Asexual Reproduction

19.                Genetics and Molecular Biology

§  Genetic foundations

                                                             i.            Genes
                                                           ii.            inheritance
                                                        iii.            Mendelian inheritance
                                                        iv.            Extension of Mendel
                                                           v.            Pedigree analysis
                                                        vi.            Prokaryotic genetics (transformation
                                                      vii.            transduction, and conjugation)
                                                   viii.            Genetic mapping

§  Chromatin and chromosomes

                                                             i.            Nucleosomes
                                                           ii.            Karyotypes
                                                        iii.            Chromosomal aberrations
                                                        iv.            Polytene chromosomes

§  Genome sequence organization

                                                                               i.            Introns and exons; Single-copy and
                                                                             ii.            repetitive DNA
                                                                          iii.            Transposable elements

§  Genome maintenance

                                                                               i.            DNA replication
                                                                             ii.            DNA mutation and repair

§  Gene expression and regulation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes mechanisms.

                                                                               i.            The operon
                                                                             ii.            Promoters and enhancers
                                                                          iii.            Transcription factors
                                                                          iv.            RNA and protein synthesis
                                                                             v.            Processing and modifications of both RNA and protein

§  Gene expression and regulation

                                                                               i.            Effects
                                                                             ii.            Control of normal development
                                                                          iii.            Cancer and oncogenes
                                                                          iv.            Signaling mechanisms in cells

§  Immuno biology.

                                                                               i.            What is immuno biology
                                                                             ii.            Cellular basis of immunity
                                                                          iii.            Antibody diversity and synthesis
                                                                          iv.            Antigen-antibody interactions

§  Bacteriophages, animal viruses, and plant viruses

                                                                               i.            Viral genomes, replication, and assembly
                                                                             ii.            Virus-host cell interactions

§  Recombinant DNA methodology

                                                                               i.            Restriction endonucleases
                                                                             ii.            Blotting and hybridization
                                                                          iii.            Restriction fragment length polymorphisms
                                                                          iv.            DNA cloning, sequencing, and analysis
                                                                             v.            Polymerase chain reaction

20.                Origins of the Species

·        Speciation

21.                Taxonomy and Classification

§  Systematics
§  History of Life

22.                Microorganisms

§  Viruses
§  Prokaryotes
§  Unicellular eukaryotes

23.                Animal Biology

§  Introduction to animals

a)    Animal diversity
b)    Animal form & function

§  Animal Systems

a)    Skeletons & muscles
b)    Circulatory & respiratory systems
c)     Nervous systems
d)    Endocrine system
e)     Reproduction & development
f)      Digestive and waste systems
g)    Body defenses

24.                Geology.
25.                Optometry.
26.                Zoology.
27.                Physiology.
28.                Physiology and psychology.
29.                Applied biology.
30.                Neuroscience.
31.                Forensic biology.
32.                Pharmaceutical science.
33.                Toxicology.
34.                Environmental biology.

a)    Ecology & Conservation
b)    Ecology
c)     Ecosystems
d)    Conservation biology

35.                Contemporary biology.
36.                Microbes and man.
37.                Plant biology and the Fungi.

§  Fungi & Plant Evolution

a)    The fungi
b)    Plant evolution

§  Plant Structure & Nutrition

a)    Plant structure
b)    Plant nutrition

§  Plant Reproduction, Development & Control

a)    Plant reproduction & development
b)    Plant control

38.                Evolutionary biology.

§  Evolution

a)    Genetic variability
b)    Origins (mutations, linkage, recombination, and chromosomal alterations)
c)     Levels (e.g., polymorphism and heritability)
d)    Spatial patterns (e.g., clines and ecotypes)
e)     Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium

§  Evolutionary processes

a)    Gene flow and genetic drift
b)    Natural selection
c)     Levels of selection (e.g. individual and group)

§  Evolutionary consequences

a)    Fitness and adaptation
b)    Speciation
c)     Systematics and phylogeny
d)    Convergence
e)     Divergence and extinction

§  History of life

a)    Origin of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
b)    Fossil record
c)     Paleontology
d)    Paleoecology

§  Taxonomy
§  Microorganisms
§  Darwin & Evolution
§  Darwin in History
§  Mechanisms of evolution
§  Population Genetics

39.                Genetics.

§  DNA
§  DNA basics
§  RNA
§  DNA to protein
§  Protein synthesis

40.                Immunology and disease.
41.                Organismal Biology

a)    Definition of organismal biology?

§  Animal Structure, Function, and Organization

                                                                                     i.            Exchange with environment
                                                                                   ii.            Nutrient, salt, and water exchange
                                                                                iii.            Gas exchange
                                                                                iv.            Energy

§  Internal transport and exchange

                                                                               i.            Circulatory
                                                                             ii.            Gastrovascular and digestive systems

§  Support and movement

                                                                               i.            Support systems (external, internal and hydrostatic)
                                                                             ii.            Movement systems (flagellar, ciliary,and muscular)

§  Integration and control mechanisms

                                                                               i.            Nervous and endocrine systems

§  Behavior (communication, orientation, learning, and instinct)
§  Metabolic rates (temperature, body size, and activity)

b)    Animal Reproduction and Development

§  Reproductive structures
§  Meiosis, gametogenesis, and fertilization
§  Early development (e.g., polarity, cleavage, and gastrulation)
§  Developmental processes (e.g., induction, determination, differentiation, morphogenesis,and metamorphosis)
§  External control mechanisms (e.g., photoperiod)

c)     Plant Structure, Function, and Organization, with Emphasis on Flowering Plants

§  Tissues, tissue systems, and organs
§  Water transport, including absorption and transpiration
§  Phloem transport and storage
§  Mineral nutrition
§  Plant energetics (e.g., respiration and photosynthesis)

d)    Plant Reproduction, Growth, and Development, with Emphasis on Flowering Plants

§  Reproductive structures
§  Meiosis and sporogenesis
§  Gametogenesis and fertilization
§  Embryogeny and seed development
§  Meristems, growth, morphogenesis, and differentiation
§  Control mechanisms (e.g., hormones, photoperiod, and tropisms)

e)     Diversity of Life

§  Archaebacteria

a)    Morphology
b)    Physiology
c)     Identification

§  Eubacteria (including cyanobacteria)

a)    Morphology
b)    Physiology
c)     Pathology
d)    Identification

§  Protista

a)    Protozoa
b)    Other heterotrophic Protista (slime molds and Oomycota)
c)     Autotrophic Protista
d)    Major distinguishing characteristics
e)     Phylogenetic relationships
f)      Importance (e.g., eutrophication, disease)

§  Fungi

a)    Distinctive features of major phyla (vegetative, asexual, and sexual reproduction)
b)    Generalized life cycles
c)     Importance (e.g., decomposition, biodegradation, antibiotics, and pathogenicity)
d)    Lichens

§  Animalia with emphasis on major phyla

a)    Major distinguishing characteristics
b)    Phylogenetic relationships

§  Plantae with emphasis on major phyla

a)    Alternation of generations
b)    Major distinguishing characteristics
c)     Phylogenetic relationships

42.                Population biology.
43.                Natural selection and classification
44.                Ecology and evolution

a)    Ecology

§  Environment/organism interaction
§  Biogeographic patterns
§  Adaptations to environment
§  Temporal patterns

b)    Behavioral ecology

§  Habitat selection
§  Mating systems
§  Social systems
§  Resource acquisition

c)     Population structure and function

§  Population dynamics/regulation
§  Demography and life history strategies

d)    Communities

§  Interspecific relationships
§  Community structure and diversity
§  Change and succession

e)     Ecosystems

§  Productivity and energy flow
§  Chemical cycling
45.                Biotechnology.

·        Principles of biotechnology
·        Applications

46.                Biology and mathematics.
47.                Biology and physics.
48.                Biology and computing.
49.                Biology and statistics.
50.                Biological employment.
51.                Biological research.
52.                How to be an exceptional biology student.
53.                Biological questions.
54.                How to answer biology questions.
55.                How to pass biology exams.
56.                How to pass biology test.
57.                How to read a biology text book.
58.                Biology resources.

Biology often overlaps with other sciences; biochemistry and toxicology with biology, chemistry, and medicine; biophysics with biology and physics; stratigraphy with biology and geography; astrobiology with biology and astronomy. Social sciences such as geography, philosophy, psychology and sociology can also interact with biology, for instance, in administration of biological resources, developmental biology, biogeography, evolutionary psychology and ethics.

If you find this session helpful, kindly send in your comments and feedback by making use of the comments box. We also welcome any suggestion on how to make this session more resourceful.

For personal consultation contact me. You can also take advantage of our courses and helpful resources to improve on your self, career and or profession.You can also visit our E-store for more product information that will be of immense assistance in your study of communication.

For more information, please visit our home.

Wishing you the best in the study of biology!

 Precious O.U. Ogholaja